바라는 바다, 노조미노우미1: 한국과 일본, 해양플라스틱쓰레기 문제 해결을 향하여
Master’s student, Graduate School of
Science and Technology Policy, KAIST
Master’s student, Graduate School of Public
Policy, University of Tokyo
<Figure 1> Sea turtle with straw up its nostril[i]
One video from 2015, which showed a sea turtle with a plastic straw up its nostril, had a huge impact on citizens all over the world. Becoming viral, it has undoubtedly triggered a movement to protect sea turtles and marine life, as well as a growing awareness of environmental issues in many countries including Korea and Japan. The issue of marine plastic litter which attracted global attention has made significant progress in the years since, with international agreements and domestic policies in place. The implementation of the Chinese government’s Action Plan to Ban Trash Imports and Reform the Solid Waste Import Management System since December 2017[ii] has accelerated this movement, generating an urgent need for domestic waste collection and processing systems in countries with high plastic consumption such as the United States and Japan. It is because they had been depending on exporting the plastic litter as resources to China and other countries in Southeast Asia.[iii]
In July 2020 in Japan, plastic bags were introduced as a chargeable item. According to a survey conducted by the Ministry of the Environment of Japan, more than 50% of respondents said that this change had made them more aware of environmental issues, and 21.5% said that it had made them more concerned about the impact on marine life. Although the overall consumption of garbage bags has not decreased, the influence of adopting such a policy is significant since it has improved people’s awareness.[iv]
Furthermore, global companies such as Starbucks and McDonald’s have made their plastic reduction efforts known through the introduction of paper straws. Japanese companies such as Skylark, Nissin Foods, 7-Eleven and Suntory, and Korean corporations such as CJ CheilJedang and Amorepacific are taking this initiative.[v] [vi] In Japan, the government’s active promotion of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has not only made individuals aware of them, but has also made it easier for companies to announce what goals they are contributing to as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). In Korea, the movement has been flourishing through the concept of Environment, Social, and Corporate Governance (ESG) from an investor’s perspective.
Indeed, environmental issues have become a matter of course to be discussed in daily life. There is a particular reason for Japan and Korea to focus on this marine plastic waste issue — facing the ocean, marine products are an essential part of their food culture. Korea ranks first in the world in per capita consumption of seafood, and Japan ranks third.[vii]
In addition, the global threat of marine plastic pollution is not merely a part of several environmental problems but a component of the climate crisis. Carbon neutrality[viii], a slogan which is declared to avert climate change, requires changes in every area of our daily life. A degree of response to marine plastic pollution can also be evaluated as a test bed for carbon neutrality policies in the future. In this article, we will discuss the overall status of marine plastic waste and the related countermeasures of Japan and Korea. In the conclusion section, the author’s recommendations will be provided based on the critical review of the marine waste management policies of two countries.
Nuts and Bolts of Marine Litter
Marine litter is a generic term for both drifting debris that washes up on the shore and that drifts on the sea surface or in the ocean, and seabed debristhat accumulates on the seafloor. It is known that at least 8 million tons of marine litter is discharged into the ocean every year.[ix] Both Japan and Korea are no exception to having responsibility for this issue, in that they generate an enormous amount of marine waste as the two highly industrialized countries adjacent to the Pacific Ocean.
The Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of the Republic of Korea announced the monitoring result on the amount of total marine litter which had been collected in Korea for three years. In 2018, 95,000 tons were collected from Korean coastal areas, and the amount jumped to 138,000 tons (45% increase) in 2020. The debris was classified based on the place where it was collected, and it turned out that 69% was coastal waste, followed by seabed waste (25%) and off-shore drifting waste (6%).[x] The Ministry of the Environment of Japan reported
<Figure 2> The pathway by which plastic enters the world’s oceans (as of 2010).[xi]
that the total amount of marine litter from Japan is 20,000 to 60,000 tons per year.[xii] According to the measurement of marine litter around Japanese territory, there was 4.775 tons of garbage that arrived at ten measuring points in Japan.[xiii] Because of the sea current, Japanese and Korean garbage is the main litter on the Sea of Japan / East Sea[xiv] side
─ particularly, garbage from Korea reaches the beach of Tsushima island, as well as Shimane to Fukui prefecture. Garbage from the Southern and Eastern part of China arrives at the shore of the East China sea side.[xv]
Most marine waste can be classified as mismanaged waste. Mismanaged waste refers to waste that has failed to be disposed of correctly. Most of it is attributed to companies but it also includes personal waste. For instance, when floods occur in rainy areas of Southeast Asia, garbage from houses and streets is quickly carried away, washed into rivers and drifted to the ocean. To make matters even worse, there is a high likelihood of finding medical and pharmaceutical waste, too.
As mentioned in the above paragraph, trash from China and the Korean peninsula is washed up on Japanese shores through ocean currents. One of the most commonly found is polyethylene tanks. Not only the polyethylene itself, but also the sulfuric acid and other dangerous substances remaining in the tanks are jeopardizing citizens and creatures on the beach. Thus, the local government encourages people not to touch waste and to report to authorities upon finding it.[xvi] [xvii]
Although marine litter consists of various materials, it is important to note that the largest component of marine litter is plastic. The aforementioned Korean monitoring result showed that plastic is the most common marine litter, accounting for 83% of the total.[xviii] Plastic is involved in 92% of animal deaths caused by marine litter. It has harmed or killed at least 700 species of organisms including fishes, seabirds, and marine mammals such as seals and sea turtles. For instance, they get entangled in fishing nets or ingest plastic bags mistaking it for food.[xix] Therefore, it is essential to understand plastic waste as a key component of marine pollution issues. We need to look further into the status of marine plastic waste, including its composition, its production and outflow, and the effective ways to manage, control, and reduce it.
Wandering and Everlasting Plastics
It is not easy to understand the status of marine plastic waste due to the intrinsic uncertainty of indirectly estimated statistics. It is only possible to estimate the approximate size through several related studies. <Figure 2> visualizes how much plastic is produced worldwide, turned into waste, and drifted to the ocean through coastal areas, showing a 41% increase during five years (2010-2015).[xx] [xxi] The amount of plastic waste entering the sea can be estimated to exceed 11 million tons per year, as of 2015.[xxii]
According to research by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), The main components of marine plastic waste were mismanaged waste (46.7%), tire abrasion (17.1%), littering (9.7%), and fishing gears (7.2%).[xxiii] They are observed not only as a form of macroplastic but also as microplastic,
<Figure 3> An octopus trapped in a ghost fishing gear abandoned in the sea near Sosambudo, Dadohaehaesang National Park, Korea.[xxiv]
especially when they are worn out in seawater and scattered into tiny pieces. Researchers from the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) pointed out during the interview[xxv] that, despite the distinction between macro and microplastics, the current observation of microplastics may not be able to capture all of the existing microplastic debris in the ocean. For example, microplastics such as scent capsules in detergents, fabric softeners, and scrubs in facial cleansers that have become too small for us to measure are not included in this figure.
The ratio of floating and sediment marine plastic waste is also unclear. There are five offshore plastic accumulation zones in the world’s oceans, one of which is the so-called ‘Great Pacific Garbage Patch (GPGP)’, created by the global ocean conveyor belt in the Pacific Ocean, all of which are made up of floating debris. The mass of the plastic in the GPGP was estimated to be about 80,000 tons.[xxvi] [xxvii] Given the annual emission of marine plastic waste, the amount that makes up the GPGP is no more than a fraction — there will be a significant amount of remainder floating on other oceans or sinking down to the sediments. Although about 60% of the plastic is less dense than the salty seawater, a notable amount of plastic ends up sinking into the ocean through a variety of pathways, such as being swallowed up by sea creatures or sinking due to the growth of plankton attached to them. If we only focus on the visible plastic waste on the coast or sea surface, it will end up in underestimation of sedimented waste.
This enormous amount of the Patch originated from a multiple of countries in the Pacific region. It is estimated that approximately 67,000 tons of marine plastic waste per year is generated offshore in Korea.[xxviii] Considering the size of the population and the length of the coastline, it is undeniably high. The waste management system correlates with each country’s GDP, but Korea has still been disposing of a considerable amount of plastic waste without sufficient measures, letting it be uncontrollably swept away into the oceans. Of course, it is not commensurate with the size of its economy.
In Korea, fishing gear waste (ghost nets) and buoys are found to occupy the largest proportion (54%).[xxix] It is notable that old fishing gear has sunk into the sea and not been properly collected. Currently, there are 110,000[xxx] to 200,000[xxxi] tons of accumulation of abandoned fishing gears sinking off the coast in Korea. The primary reason for such a large amount of sunken fishing gear waste is nothing but its excessive use. According to the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries of the Republic of Korea, the total fishing gear used in 2016 weighed 131,000 tons. This is 154% more than the stipulated amount for appropriate use of fishing gear (51,000 tons). The report also mentions that 44,000 tons per year of fishing gear were dumped into the sea. Given that the average annual collection amount is only 11,000 tons, the remaining 33,000 tons are lost every year in the sea.[xxxii]
Analysis on the Marine Garbage Management Policy in Korea
In this section, the analysis of the Korean and Japanese governments implementing marine litter disposal policy will be given. In Korea, based on Article 24 (1) of the Marine Environment Management Act, the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries has been planning and implementing the marine waste collection and treatment plan every five years. Accordingly, the Third Basic Marine Litter Management Plan was implemented in 2019.
Meanwhile, the Management of Marine Garbage and Contaminated Marine Sediment Act came into effect in December 2020. Based on Article 5 of the Act, the Minister of Oceans and Fisheries shall establish a basic plan for the management of marine wastes and marine pollutants every 10 years. Accordingly, on June 30, 2021, the First Basic Plan, corresponding to the 10-year period from 2021 to 2030, was established and announced. The Third Basic Marine Litter Management Plan has been merged into this basic Plan, while being already enacted.[xxxiii]
Choi Seong-yong, head of the Marine Conservation Division of the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, emphasized in a press release that “Prevention is the best option for addressing marine debris.”[xxxiv] To this end, the Ministry decided to increase the number of barriers installed in rivers to prevent land waste from entering the sea, in cooperation with the Ministry of the Environment. It was also announced that the Ministry plans to introduce a deposit system for fishing gear and buoys in the second half of 2022 in order to prevent them from being littered in the sea.
Kim Kyung-shin, a researcher at the Korea Maritime Institute, evaluates Korea as a country with a complete systematic and continuous management system for marine debris such as laws, basic plans, central and local government cooperation systems, and budgets in terms of management system. He foresees that the generation and collection of marine debris will enter a stabilization stage at a level that can be managed by the state or local governments if various policy projects embodied in the master plan are carried out without any setbacks.[xxxv]
The new policies to be promoted through the Marine Waste Management Act include the mandatory measures to block the inflow of river and river waste into the ocean; the collection order system for factors that generate marine waste; and the marine waste management committee system that will comprehensively review industry, environment, safety, and international cooperation to meet the level of response of the international community.
It could be positively evaluated that the relevant ministries are jointly taking actions on marine plastic pollution rather than separately making policies. However, it is evaluated that policies to tackle ocean plastic pollution are mostly focused on managing the phenomenon. It needs to be focused on the fundamental cause rather than the consequential phenomenon, which is consistent with the agreements of international marine organizations. Collecting marine plastic waste through special vessels has a limitation in that it is expensive compared to its effectiveness. The recent policy trend has shifted away from the action of collecting toward cause management to prevent the inflow of waste from land into the sea. Supporting the development of materials that replace plastics or implementing policies to constrain the use of single-use plastics in order to fundamentally solve ‘plastic addiction’ is essential.
|1||Sound waste management systems|
|2||Prevention of littering, illegal dumping and unintentional leakage of waste into the oceans|
|3||Collection of scattered waste on land|
|4||Innovation in development of and conversion to alternative materials|
|5||Removal of plastic litter from the oceans|
|6||Multi-stakeholder involvement and awareness-raising|
|7||Sharing scientific information and knowledge: R&D and Monitoring|
<Table 1> Comprehensive eight targets to tackle the marine plastic litter issue, in National Action Plan for Marine Plastic Litter.[xxxvi]
Compared to other countries that have decided to eliminate single-use plastics altogether, Korea’s policy is insufficient and needs to be further strengthened.[xxxvii]
Analysis on the Marine Garbage Management Policy in Japan
On the other hand, the Ministry of the Environment of Japan formulated the National Action Plan for Marine Plastic Litter based on Osaka Blue Ocean Vision[xxxviii], which sets forth a policy to approach the problem comprehensively from eight areas.[xxxix] In terms of legislation, the Waste Management and Public Cleansing Act, The Container Recycling Law, and The Act on Promotion of Resource Circulation for Plastics have been developed. The first law in particular requires municipalities to formulate a basic waste management plan, which must include specific methods, target values, and cost-effectiveness targets for waste management. It can be said that a more concrete and comprehensive system has been set up.
According to the G20 Osaka Blue Ocean Vision website, Japan has shown positive improvement in the enforcement of proper waste management systems.[xl] It has also shown positive improvement at promotion of innovative solutions, budget scale of waste plastic recycling, public-private partnerships for creating and implementing innovative solutions, education, monitoring & scientific research. On the contrary, the data on prevention of littering, illegal dumping and unintentional leakage of waste into the ocean, and cleanup of marine plastic litter did not indicate any particular trend. Another challenge is the delay in planning due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Efforts to reduce the generation of waste and to recover it are issues that need to be addressed in the long term.
To make the policy more citizen-friendly, the Ministry of the Environment of Japan published a collection of examples of measures to reduce marine litter generation in 2021.[xli] This report summarizes the outline of the measures and individual cases based on the policy that “it is desirable to reduce the generation of new marine litter itself by implementing measures to reduce the generation of litter at each location from land to sea, including municipalities that do not have beaches”. The know-how to effectively tackle the marine litter problem can be improved by disclosing costs and the people involved. Evaluating activities and publishing them in an easy-to-understand, reachable manner could also create a good competition to solve the problem.
How Japan and Korea can do for the Future “Sea of Aspiration”
However, there are limits to technological solutions and legal regulations against the problem of marine plastic litter.[xlii] Sadao Harada, a public economist, emphasizes that the development of alternative materials for plastics is progressing rapidly, but the evaluation of biodegradation performance itself is not yet settled, and it is impossible to replace all existing plastic products. In addition, there are many technical issues in improving the recycling rate, and recycling itself requires a large amount of energy, so it cannot be said that we are breaking free from a plastic-dependent society. Moreover, excessive dependence on waste incineration has been pointed out as a situation unique to Japan. Plus, many legally binding regulations have been introduced in both developed and developing countries, such as the introduction of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and bans on the use of disposable plastic products. But in the case of Japan, the current Containers and Packaging Recycling Law is not binding. Harada insists that it is important to establish specific laws and regulations along with economic incentives.[xliii] South Korea had designed an advanced system under the active leadership of the central government compared to Japan, but the major cities, which are the main sources of drifting and floating litter, are often located downstream. The current system is designed to transfer financial resources from the less populated upstream areas to the downstream areas, so that there is no incentive for the local governments in the basin to reduce their waste. In conclusion, It is important for both Japan and Korea to implement plastic waste reduction from the viewpoint of prevention, with proper incentives.
<Figure 4> Picture of the cleanup event as a part of the Japan-Korea Strait Drifting Litter Simultaneous Cleanup Project, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan, 19 May 2019.[xliv]
Finally, here are some examples of how Japan and Korea are working together on the issue of marine plastic litter. Japan and Korea are conducting the Japan-Korea Strait Drifting Litter Simultaneous Cleanup Project.[xlv] Four Japanese prefectures (Fukuoka, Saga, Nagasaki, Yamaguchi) and four Korean provinces (Busan metropolitan city, Jeollanam-do, Gyeongsangnam-do, Jeju-do) started the project in 2010 based on the 18th Japan-Korea Strait Governor meeting in 2009 in light of the impact of coastal waste on the global environment. In 2020, despite the pandemic, 21,567 citizens in both Japan and Korea collected 2,141 tons of waste together; in 2016, 113,151 people collected 8,447 tons.
In addition, Tsushima island and Busan metropolitan city, which are closely located across a strait, conducted the Japan-Korea Exchange Marine Litter Workshop for local high school and university students.[xlvi] In the second session held in 2020, it was emphasized that the problem of drifting litter has no borders, through the lectures by experts from Japan and Korea.
Although Japan and Korea have various political issues, the marine plastic litter issue has no borders. Not only top-down policies from higher governance but also bottom-up efforts by local communities and citizens should be greatly promoted from now on.
Beyond the Dead End of Plastics
The policies and initiatives implemented by Korea and Japan for marine plastic pollution will only be properly delivered when governments and communities engage for a shared goal. In addition, it should be accompanied by a reflective deliberation of the modern civilization based on fossil fuels. The extreme production and consumption of plastic has been enabled by recklessly extracting an affluent amount of fossil fuels.
Plastic is one of the significant contributors to climate change by carbon emissions throughout its entire life cycle. In the first place, ethylene and propylene, the basic raw materials of plastic, are obtained by decomposing naphtha, which is extracted from fossil fuels. The energy required for the plastic manufacturing and refining process is also obtained from petroleum. At the plastic disposal stage, greenhouse gasses are generated from facilities that collect and incinerate things that cannot be recycled. Landfill plastic also emits greenhouse gasses in the process of decomposition by ultraviolet rays. The carbon footprint of plastics has only recently been evaluated on a global scale.[xlvii]
A consensus has been established in the international community to achieve carbon neutrality as soon as possible to respond to climate change. Resolving the plastic problem is important, but it is important as a means to achieve carbon neutrality rather than as a purpose per se. By doing so, it can be considered as a high priority in international cooperation as well as in response to climate change. Offshore countries should cooperate at a regional bloc level to actively resolve plastic pollution in the corresponding oceans. ASEAN+3, in which China, Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asian countries participate, is an appropriate example of partnership to deal with the pollution of the seas they share. If those kinds of international communities come together and enforce maritime policy in a binding manner, it could implement related policy on continuity so that certain countries cannot lose their project momentum owing to domestic political changes. It would be more effective if the land-originated waste prevention and collection system, as well as related technology, were transferred between countries.
The oceans are vast and seem outside human habitation that it is hard to recognize the severity of marine plastic pollution, but several people started to realize the severity. Zero-waste shops are popping up all over the area, and more and more people are trying to live a plastic-free life. Not only individual efforts but also collective actions are taking place, encouraging politicians and government officials to adopt proper laws and policies. Now is the time to take action to take care of our oceans.
[ii] State Council [China] (2017), 「The State Council has Approved an Action Plan to Ban Trash Imports and Reform the Solid Waste Import Management System (国务院办公厅关于印发禁止洋垃圾入境推进固体废物进口管理制度改革实施方案的通知)」. State Council Press Release (国办发), 2017(70).
[iii] 「Global companies and municipalities are stepping up efforts to reduce waste plastic (U.S. and Canada) (グローバル企業や自治体は廃プラスチック削減対策を強化（米国・カナダ）)」, https://www.jetro.go.jp/biz/areareports/special/2019/0101/9a758323df9de469.html
[iv] Ministry of the Environment [Japan] (Dec 7 2020), 「Web-based survey on plastic bag use in November 2020 (令和2年11月レジ袋使用状況に関するWEB調査)」,
[v] Ministry of Foreign Affairs [Japan] (Dec 2018), 「Marine Plastic Waste Management – Examples of progressive initiatives by Japanese companies (海洋プラスチックごみ対策 ー日本企業の先進的な取組例ー)」, https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/files/000429394.pdf
[vi] JoongAng Ilbo (16 Aug 2021), 「Corporates answer to the question, “Are there any plans to reduce plastics?” (“플라스틱 줄일 계획 있나요?” 기업에 물었더니 돌아온 답변)」
[vii] Fisheries Agency [Japan] (2017), “Global seafood consumption (世界の水産物消費)”, 2017 White Paper, Ch.3(2). https://www.jfa.maff.go.jp/j/kikaku/wpaper/h29_h/trend/1/t1_2_3_2.html
[viii] Carbon neutrality, also referred to as net zero carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, is achieved when anthropogenic CO2 emissions are balanced globally by removals over a specified period (IPCC, 2018: Annex I: Glossary [Matthews, J.B.R. (ed.)]. In: Global Warming of 1.5°C. [Masson-Delmotte, V., et al. (eds.)]). In the context, this term is used for indicating the relevance between the efforts of mitigating climate change and marine plastic pollution.
[ix] Ministry of the Environment [Japan] (26 Feb 2019), 「Status on Marine Plastic Waste (海洋プラスチックごみに関する状況)」, The 1st Meeting of Relevant Ministries on the Implementation of Marine Plastic Waste Action (第１回 海洋プラスチックごみ対策の推進に関する関係府省会議), Reference No. 2. https://www.env.go.jp/water/marirne_litter/mpl1-d2.pdf
[x] Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries [Korea] (15 Mar 2021), 「Collecting 138K Tons of Marine Debris in 2020, 45% Up from 2018」
[xi] 「How Much Plastic Enters the World’s Oceans?」 (Visualization source from Jambeck, J. R. et al. (2015), “Plastic Waste Inputs from Land into the Ocean”, Science, 347(6223), pp.768-771.), https://ourworldindata.org/plastic-pollution
[xii] Ministry of the Environment [Japan] (26 Feb 2019), Op. cit.
[xiii] Japan NUS Co., Ltd. (Mar 2021), FY2020 Comprehensive Study on Grasping the Actual Condition of Marine Litter and Biological Impact Report (令和2年度 海洋ごみの実態把握及び生物影響把握等に関する総合検討業務 報告書), Tokyo: Ministry of Environment [Japan].
[xiv] [Editor’s comment] Considering the territorial conflict between two countries, “East Sea” and “Sea of Japan” are written together in order to indicate the identical sea between Korea and Japan. “Sea of Japan” comes before “East Sea” since this paragraph is written by the Japanese author.
[xv] Fujieda, S. & Kojima, A. (2006), “Estimation of the Source of Marine Litter Drifted on the Coast of East Asia (東アジア圏域における海岸漂着ごみの流出起源の推定)”, Journal of Coastal Zone Studies (海岸域学会誌), 18(4), pp. 15-22.
[xvi] Marine plastic waste affects not only the marine ecosystem but also the health of citizens. The effects on the human body are still largely unknown, but there is a possibility (Nippon Foundation Journal (5 Jun 2020), 「What are the Effects of Microplastics on the Human Body? Asking the Professor of the University of Tokyo (【増え続ける海洋ごみ】マイクロプラスチックが人体に与える影響は？東京大学教授に問う)」).
[xvii] A friend of the Japanese author, who lives in a coastal town in Ishikawa Prefecture, says that the amount of garbage has vastly increased in the last 10 years. The beautiful beaches became dangerous, and children cannot play there anymore. Due to the complexity and transnational nature of the issue, international cooperation is necessary for tackling it.
[xviii] Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries [Korea] (15 Mar 2021), Op. Cit.
[xix] 「About the Marine Plastic Issue (海洋プラスチック問題について)」, https://www.wwf.or.jp/activities/basicinfo/3776.html
[xxi] In 2010, global plastic production per year was 270 million tons, but it was estimated that 381 million tons per year were produced in 2015.
[xxii] It is roughly supposed that the plastic production and waste volume are proportional based on <Figure 2>.
[xxiii] United Nations Environment Programme (2018), Mapping of Global Plastics Value Chain and Plastics Losses to the Environment: with a Particular Focus on Marine Environment [Ryberg, M. W., Laurent, A., & Hauschild, M. (eds.)]. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme.
[xxiv] JoongAng Ilbo (23 Jun 2021), 「South Sea, a plastic graveyard… A map of the marine waste spread out on the ground (플라스틱 무덤 된 남해…바닷속 쓰레기 지도, 땅에 펼쳤더니)」.
[xxv] Hayashi, S. & Hibino, K. (22 Dec 2021), Interview with Researchers from the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (by Shimono, R. et al.), Fukuoka: Kitakyushu Asian Center for Low Carbon Society.
[xxvi] 「The Great Pacific Garbage Patch」, https://theoceancleanup.com/great-pacific-garbage-patch/
[xxvii] Lebreton, L. et al. (2018), “Evidence that the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is Rapidly Accumulating Plastic”, Scientific Reports, 8(4666).
[xxviii] Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries [Korea] (15 Mar 2021), Op. cit.
[xxix] Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries [Korea] (15 Mar 2021), Op. cit. The proportion is evaluated among 67,000 tons of annual marine plastic waste.
[xxx] Busan Ilbo (30 May 2021), 「NFFC Takes Action on Collecting Marine Sediment Waste, an Underwater “Minefield” (수협, 바닷속 ‘지뢰밭’ 침적쓰레기 수거 나섰다)」.
[xxxi] Seo, J. -S. (2020), Elegance of Fishery (어업의 품격), Seoul: Jisungsa, p.85.
[xxxii] Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries [Korea] (13 Dec 2016), 「Law Enactment for Maritime Ecosystem Protection and Fishermen’s Safety (바다 생태계 보호 및 어업인 안전 위한 법 만든다)」, https://www.mof.go.kr/article/view.do?articleKey=14210&boardKey=10&menuKey=376
[xxxiii] Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries [Korea] (2021), The First Basic Plan on the Management of Marine Garbage and Contaminated Marine Sediment (2021-2030) (제1차 해양폐기물 및 해양오염퇴적물 관리 기본계획 (2021-2030)).
[xxxiv] Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries [Korea] (15 Mar 2021), Op. cit.
[xxxv] Korea Policy Briefing (28 Jun 2021), 「Marine Waste Issue, How Serious and How can be Resolved (해양쓰레기 문제, 얼마나 심각하며 어떻게 해결할 수 있을까)」, https://www.korea.kr/news/policyNewsView.do?newsId=148889273
[xxxvi] Ministry of the Environment [Japan] (31 May 2019), National Action Plan for Marine Plastic Litter (海洋プラスチックごみ対策アクションプラン).
[xxxvii] Ministry of the Environment [Korea] (24 Dec 2020), 「Establishment of Measures on Full-cyclical Reduction and Recycling of Plastic (플라스틱 전주기 발생 저감 및 재활용 대책 수립)」, https://me.go.kr/home/web/board/read.do?boardMasterId=1&boardId=1420640&menuId=286
[xxxix] Ministry of the Environment [Japan] (31 May 2019), Op. cit.
[xli] Ministry of the Environment [Japan] (June 2021), 「Examples of marine litter control measures (海洋ごみ発生抑制対策等事例集)」, https://www.env.go.jp/water/marine_litter/mat21_06.pdf
[xlii] Harada, S. (2020), “How Can We Stop Marine Plastic Pollution?:The Applicability of the Social License to Operate (SLO) (プラスチック汚染にどう立ち向かうのか:―社会的営業免許（SLO）の可能性をさぐる―)”, Review of environmental economics and policy studies (環境経済・政策研究), Vol.13, No.1, pp. 12-26.
[xliii] Harada, S. (2014), “Watershed Liability Management System as a Marine Litter Control Measure: A Case Study of Korea (海ごみ発生抑制策としての流域責任管理制度 : 韓国の事例から)”, Osaka University of Commerce Essay Collection (大阪商業大学論集), Vol.10, No.1(173).
[xliv] 「Japan-Korea Strait Coastal Drifting Litter Simultaneous Cleanup (日韓海峡海岸漂着ごみ一斉清掃)」,
[xlvi] Nagasaki Shimbun (Jan 23 2020), 「Marine Litter Has No Borders: High School Students in Tsushima Learn in Korea, Create Awareness Posters with Local Youth (海ごみに国境はない 対馬の高校生、韓国で学ぶ 啓発ポスターを現地の若者と制作)」.
[xlvii] Zheng, J. & Suh, S. (2019), “Strategies to Reduce the Global Carbon Footprint of Plastics”, Nature Climate Change, Vol. 9, pp.374–378.